Posts Tagged ‘Sales and operations planning’

Three Distinct Capabilities of Best in Class – From the suppy chain leadership series

Published April 16th, 2014 by CJ Wehlage 2 Comments

supply chain leadership seriesAs I mentioned in my last post of this series, I am starting a blog series on “supply chain leadership”. I hope to pose thought provoking, and forward looking questions to executives in my supply chain network. This series will provide insights into the most pressing challenges, innovative items in supply chain leader’s budgets, and how these executives have handled talent, complexity, end-to-end S&OP, and technology. Next up is Clarence Chen, Partner at AT Kearney.  I have known Clarence from his days at PRTM as Partner of Electronics & Semiconductors.  His background and opinions on the future of supply chain is truly fascinating.

1. As we enter 2014, how would you describe the most pressing supply chain challenges?

Some of the most pressing supply chain challenges in 2014 continues to be that of delivery, quality and cost.  I think the factors that compound those challenges are changing at a faster pace than most industries are able to cope with, thereby making attainment of the core supply chain objectives even more challenging.

There are two vectors for those factors:

1)  At a geo-demographic level there are the shifting patterns of demand and growth along with cost factors rising quickly in some geographies/countries and inputs into production.

2) At a technological level, the pace of innovation continues to accelerate.  Not only is the pace of NPI increasing in technology, but that same clock speed is now moving into broad sectors as trends such as the internet of things/devices become more pervasive beyond traditional high tech penetrating into industrial, healthcare, automotive sectors, etc.

To cope with these factors, companies have to rethink the core supply chain capabilities of plan, source, make, deliver and the skills and resources required to manage supply chains in 2014 and beyond.   Companies will need to manage with greater precision, tightness, and control over their supply chain assets and partners. Those who don’t master that well will risk high E&O and overall inventories, supply-demand mix issues which impact service levels, and slow response times to changing market demand patterns

2. The End-to-End supply chain strategy has been well documented. What capabilities does your company have that is better in class for integrating end to end?

The best-in-class companies have three distinct capabilities that are more developed than others.  First is a thorough mastery of the demand management process – not just focused on forecasting, but on developing a better “quality” of demand.  This emphasizes factors such as being able to understand whether shifts in demand represent a timing issue driven by big deals, or whether the market is fundamentally at new level of demand, and then driving the rationalization of actual demand against a plan. Second is an ability to propagate demand across an extended supply chain, taking into account the key control nodes and depth of the supply chain, and balancing that against supply, inventory, service and supply chain level constraints. Third is the ability to collaborate with key long lead time suppliers to ensure that they are able to meet the forecast and execute against actual requirements. This direct control of the end-to-end supply chain minimizes bullwhip effects, and enables the responsiveness required in today’s volatile environments.

3. How aligned and connected are you to the many supply chain nodes?  What are the reasons you would want to improve this alignment?

Back in 2010, on the heels of a severe component shortage environment as companies emerged from the 2008 market downturn, I conducted a survey with 14 leading computing and storage companies to better understand how some coped better than others with the upswing in demand, and extreme supply shortages.  The findings validated that those companies with greater visibility and control of their extended supply chain fared much better in recovering supply than those companies that did not.  By visibility and control, it means that those that had visibility at component level, and sometimes at tier 3 level visibility, coupled with planning and orchestration across the extended supply could then proactively allocate precious supply to demand priorities and manage tightly the placement of P.O.s at the extend lead times. In particular, those that modeled what their contract manufacturers and key supplier suppliers (e.g. die banks with silicon devices) and were able to balance S-D at each node fared the best.

I love Clarence’s insights, especially on the main challenge: delivery, quality, and cost.  These are the core objectives from the past 20 years, and remain the core challenges.  However, as he notes, demand demographics and speed of NPI cycles are stressing the core in new ways.  Most people want visibility.  But, a lot don’t drill into the question, “What will you do with visibility?”  As Clarence notes, the quality of demand needs to improve.  What segments are relevant?  You need to propagate this relevance throughout your supply network.  What are the insights to this change?  And, then you need to collaborate with the key nodes to execute the change.

You can see those supply chains that can prioritize change, analyze the end-to-end impact, and collaborate in real time are doing so with better margin  and operating costs, capturing more market share, and controlling supply chain risk and disruptions better.

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Posted in Demand management, General News, Inventory management, Sales and operations planning (S&OP), Supply chain collaboration

Supply Chain Leadership Series: High Tech executive focused on global external manufacturing

Published April 3rd, 2014 by CJ Wehlage 0 Comments

I am starting a blog series called “Supply Chain Leadership”, where I hope to pose thought provoking, and forward looking questions to executives in my supply chain network.  Posted monthly, this series will provide insights into the most pressing challenges, innovative items in their budgets, and how these executives have handled talent, complexity, end-to-end S&OP, and technology.

First up is a high tech executive in the enterprise storage industry. He is leading the global external manufacturing group and based in Ireland. His deep experience in working with the complexity of outsourced manufacturing, to me, is the most extensive I have known.

1.       As we enter 2014, how would you describe the most pressing supply chain challenges?

Supply Chain challenges are coming at us from multiple fronts. The ones we know about are increases in regulations, e.g. BIS, and finding the right balance between cost and the ability to service our customers in the most efficient way from an availability and lead-time standpoint. The biggest challenge, however, is being prepared for the next major Supply Chain disruption. Over the past 3 years we have had many natural disasters including ash clouds, earthquakes, flooding & hurricanes. While these events have had a really terrible impact on people lives within the region where they have occurred, they have also had a significant impact on the supply of materials to many locations world-wide. From a Supply Chain standpoint, our challenge is to prepare as robust a supply chain as possible to deal with other natural disasters that will certainly happen in the future, but we just don’t know where or when.


And the data supports his concern:

  • Japan Quake/Tsunami – $210B cost
  • Thailand Floods – $30B cost
  • Volcano Ash Clouds – $5B impact to global GDP


Global Billion-Dollar Economic Loss Events by Region

2.       Looking back at the past few years, what parts of supply chain have improved and what have you seen as the contributing factors for that improvement?

Rather than specific processes, applications or techniques, I believe the biggest improvement over the past couple of years is the general acceptance that manufacturing in, or sourcing material from, the lowest cost region is not always the right option. Many manufacturing companies, particularly in the high-tech sector, are focusing on the concept of “Right-Shoring”, which is basically optimizing multiple locations to take advantage of total cost, time to market and other factors such as consumer’s pride in “Made in x” or concerns about worker’s conditions is certain regions.

This general acceptance or mind shift change has encouraged and facilitated a different type of thinking that has driven improvements in many supply chain related areas.


3.       In the creation or support of your Budget Plan, what are the new items you see for this year and beyond, things that haven’t been on prior year Budgets, or things that have seen the greatest increase in priority?

One item that is chewing up a larger portion of tightening budgets is the cost associated with complying with importation regulation is many countries. As supply chain professionals, we have an obligation to ensure that our products do not present any risk to humans or the environment. However, over the past few years more and more countries have implemented unique requirements that are costing a lot of money and increased difficulties in the supply chain.

I am not really seeing enough effort to eliminate these unique requirements and move to a global standard. This needs to be a priority for our industry over the next couple of years.  


4.       The End-to-End supply chain strategy has been well documented. What capabilities does your company have that is better in class for integrating end-to-end?

A global footprint of fulfillment sources, both our own factories and CM facilities, which allows us to vertically integrate at the most competitive, cost to best service our customers. Selecting the most suitable partners who are as interested in growing a sustainable business as we are, has been one of the most important elements of our end-to-end supply chain strategy. Our supply chain partners provide us the world class service. They totally understand the direction that our business is going and what our future needs will be, sometimes before we do ourselves.


5.       How aligned and connected are you to the many supply chain nodes?  What are the reasons you would want to improve this alignment?

I believe we are very aligned and connected with our supply chain nodes. We are also very much aware of alternative supply chain nodes and how quickly we could turn them on if we needed to. Partnering with some of the world’s leading supply chain experts is an integral part of our supply chain strategy. However, we always need to keep improving this alignment. The world is changing at a faster pace than ever before and we need to stay at the leading edge. Technology is improving and the use of near real-time data can provide tremendous benefits. We must embrace these changes and continue to drive further alignment to reap the benefits.


I find his answers fascinating.  Would you agree?

When talking about outsourcing, he calls out the real challenge… global decisions.  Connecting trading partner data is a given. What you do with that data – Decision Making – is the heart of successful external manufacturing. When a disruption occurs, whether it’s a supply shortage or a natural disaster, the ability to structure the decisions is critical.  And what makes a decision? = policies.

Visibility into data gives you just a number. The difficult part is determining what that number means. What is needed is visibility into policy, because you can now determine the relevance of what’s impacted, and the insight as to what to do about it.

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Posted in Best practices, Demand management, Sales and operations planning (S&OP)

On the road again! LogiPharma Europe – April 8-9, 2014

Published March 25th, 2014 by Alissa Hurley 0 Comments
_Trevor Miles

Trevor Miles, vice president of thought leadership and industry principle, life sciences

We’re excited to be participating in LogiPharma Europe 2014 in Basel, Switzerland!

This year’s conference is focused on Supply Chain as a Customer Centric Function.

Join us for a roundtable discussion on April 8th on how to leverage the cloud to achieve true innovation in supply chain management. And, on April 9th, Trevor Miles is leading a session entitled Continuous S&OP – Breaking the Mold. In this session, he will discuss how business and technology has changed tremendously in the thirty years since S&OP was first defined, enabling much more proficient and integrated S&OP processes. Trevor will describe how companies are breaking the traditional S&OP mold from both a process and technology perspective.

During the conference follow hashtag #LogiPharma  and stop by the Kinaxis booth #21 to meet with the team and learn more about how Kinaxis has helped life science companies adopt process improvements and technology targeted at removing business “silos,” improving collaboration, and achieving significant operations performance breakthroughs. Find out more about RapidResponse for life sciences at:

More about the conference:
LogiPharma is the ONLY VP-level, end-to-end supply chain event for life science professionals, focusing on strategic and tactical improvements for Europe & the rest of the world. It caters to professionals from across the spectrum of innovative pharma, generics, animal health as well as bio tech companies, tackling the most relevant, pressing challenges and opportunities present in the industry

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Posted in General News, Milesahead, Pharma and life sciences supply chain management, Sales and operations planning (S&OP), Supply chain collaboration, Supply chain management Got a Face-lift: Introducing Our Newly Re-launched Website

Published February 19th, 2014 by Melissa Clow 0 Comments

We are excited to announce our newly redesigned website!

While the need for a new website and the benefits of re-launching are too many to name, here are the top 3 things that we think will make the difference:

  1. Most importantly – It’s very different!
    We are a different company with a unique approach to solving supply chain problems with a unique product. We need a website that demonstrates that differentiation.
  2. A more modern look
    With our new site we aim to offer a better experience, especially on mobile devices.
  3. Better page design and layout
    You will notice that information is more easily consumed and digested and supporting content (images, videos, customer stats, case studies etc..) is more plentiful and better presented/promoted.

We encourage you to spend a moment visiting the new site to check out our new look and learn more about the solutions we offer for your S&OP and SCP processes.

Please feel free to send us comments or feedback you may have.

- The Marketing team

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Posted in Miscellanea

Biomanufacturing closely tied with supply chain

Published February 10th, 2014 by Nazli Erdogus 2 Comments

With regards to the continuous efforts in pharmaceutical industry, we certainly see a great improvement in the US, California and how much the 632% increase in employment between years 2006 – 2011 has brought substantial growth to the sector.

Some of the main reasons of this improvement between R&D to prescription phases are due to the investments for enhanced technologies used in R&D, effective manufacturing techniques, and certainly the efforts towards a more efficient supply chain management. The latter one, supply chain management actually goes hand in hand with manufacturing, even though we don`t get to hear a lot about its importance.

I greatly enjoy following new trends and hearing about recent developments in industries. I was in San Diego at the Biomanufacturing Summit last week and had great conversations with people from different pharmaceutical companies, had the opportunity to view the industry trends, hear about some pain points, and even discovered beer making process as part of a facility tour (you wonder how this is related to pharmaceuticals? Well, after all, beer manufacturing is just another type of fermentation!).

It`s always amazing to see how manufacturing follows a common path among different industries. At the conference, I kept seeing in the workshops the terms lean, agile, kaizen, 6S, Toyota Production System. As much as these terms can be more applicable towards a manufacturing environment, I really liked to see that the pharmaceutical companies are trying to apply the best practices both from each other and from different environments. This can be limited to the manufacturing technologies today, but will certainly extend to other areas like supply chain. Having said that, referring to my previous statement about manufacturing being hand in hand with supply chain, some of the information – mostly where pain points are today – I captured from the conference below proves how valid this is:

  • Cost and speed are still today`s challenge.
  • Speed generally becomes an issue from development to the marketing of the product.
  • Cost opportunity is very much volume driven, which is derived from an accurate estimate of demand forecast.
  • Forecast is never right so capacity never remains accurate.
  • Long lead times to build the product have a big impact on cost, so always need better CMOs.
  • New CMOs are in general willing to make investments to improve in order to secure market place but not the old ones.
  • Cost, scheduling, quality are three elements of the triangle leading to challenges.
  • Tradeoff between cost and quality is not a good mindset – today`s cost saving solution may become tomorrow`s compliance problem.
  • Commercial and technical life cycle management for pharmaceuticals is resource intensive to fix problems as you face them.
  • Continuous improvement is critical, cannot only rely on periodic improvements such as 6S/lean project based approaches.

So just from there we see that applying lean in manufacturing is not sufficient on its own. Some keynote speakers mentioned productivity measures varying according to the product. As an example, there is an increased yield on the drug substance side whereas on the drug side it`s much smaller. However, you can think about how you can match the type of cost where you need to deploy a lower cost of production (i.e. through selecting local vendors). Also, in terms of capacity problems, there was a really good example when I got to chat with a master planner. She talked about having two reactors with x and 2x capacity in their facility defined as constraints – you can imagine how big of an issue this can be if not communicated and/or planned properly at a supply planning phase of your S&OP cycle. Let us look at it at a more detailed level, you`ll likely need to change equipment as you are switching to a different reactor too. As much as it sounds simple, it`s a basic problem that many industries are facing today. That is exactly where a well maintained supply chain management comes into play, also creating room to reduce costs.

When we think of continuous improvement, a basic approach to it is simply comparing your plans from different times/people/departments without having to manually connect them to one another, always looking to find a better solution and do it in the fast pace as your business requires. This is where RapidResponse acts as the crème de la crème, creating the end to end visibility, the ability to compare multiple plans created in your single instance, and the speed to your entire supply chain like no other software can.

Simply mentioning the capabilities of RapidResponse that can make their lives easier and also create a cost effective management sounded ground breaking for most pharmaceutical companies, especially after talking about how our other pharmaceutical customers made a great use of it improving their supply chain practices. We are talking about over 15-20 manufacturing sites and around 500 different suppliers for some pharmaceutical companies; in such an environment it`s simply not sustainable to do any plan manually, no matter how lean you are. For some companies the challenge starts from the raw material, where there is poor procurement/warehouse management in place leading to a ripple effect that gets carried all the way to the distributor.

Key takeaways:

Biotechnology is booming despite a challenging economic environment and a lot of companies have been heavily investing through M&As and/or new product developments. Once the FDA approvals are there, those products will be on the market needing to be effectively and efficiently manufactured and distributed. Also some other important points to keep in mind:

  • Innovation, reach, and manufacturing technology are the three dimensions of this industry.
  • Iterations of improvement (continuous improvement) give a better result moving forward.
  • There is an increasing need for:
  • New capabilities in the industry to lower costs, and increase flexibility and speed
  • Adjusting production based on demand which comes with accurate forecast and respond to demand changes quickly
  • Faster capacity increase and being able to use same facility for multiple materials

So we see it`s an absolute must to be able to maneuver your actions in such a rapidly evolving environment, learn from previous and apply fixes to following plans. How?

Even though for most pharmaceutical companies the order of priority is compliance, supply and profit plan, they are recognizing that all these three can actually be improved through a better supply chain. There isn`t much room to play with R&D costs and your manufacturing is as lean as possible. What else can you do? You need a better managed supply chain. For pharmaceutical companies, high risk and high profit margin is associated with their business so they can make big investments, whereas for CMOs there is lower margin thus leaving them with not so much room for investment. However, the pharmaceutical companies do want the CMOs to make investments to improve the lead times. Maybe it`s time for more CMOs to make good use of a supply chain management software and create grounds to efficiently collaborate with their customer, the pharmaceutical companies, for a better performance of supplier consistency and reliability.

As a conclusion, external and internal factors are driving changes in biomanufacturing environments which demand new operational capabilities. Cost, speed and flexibility are the key differentiators in operations. In order to operate economically and compete globally, pharmaceutical companies are looking at possible ways using the right technology and assets for a proper segmentation and appropriate deployment meaning considerations of localizing, minimizing, and making variability friendly investments.

You can also check out the blog my colleague Trevor Miles wrote, “Chinese Hamster Ovaries, Medicines, Manufacturing, and Supply Chain”.

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Posted in Pharma and life sciences supply chain management

Making Connections at Kinexions – Our customers say it all – Part 3

Published December 12th, 2013 by Trevor Miles @milesahead 0 Comments

A couple of weeks ago we had a user and prospect conference in Tokyo, which I was fortunate enough to attend and present at. I covered the North American conference in two previous blogs – Part 1 and Part 2.

I was surprised when I worked out that it had been 10 years since I was last in Japan. I was supposed to speak at our user conference in 2011, but it was just a few weeks after the tsunami, so we cancelled the conference. What surprised me is that the after effects of the tsunami did not come up at all in discussions. Of course there are many cultural and social reasons why the after effects may not have come up. And, looking back on my time there, I have to admit that I did not ask our customers and prospects about the effects of the 2011 tsunami on their business.

What I did notice is that the economy does seem to have picked up after many years of stagnant growth. Notice the huge dip in 2011, the year of the tsunami, which is surpassed only by the dip in 2009. According to data from the World Bank, Japan’s average growth rate since 1990 is only 1.14%.

This diagram does not tell the full story. Growth in industrial production, which used to be the heart of the Japanese growth, has been largely negative since 1990. According to the World Bank, manufacturing as a percent of GDP has dropped by 7% since 1990 to 18.6% in 2012. That is a big drop, but things seem to be looking up. Clearly the automotive and industrial machinery sector is the largest, with consumer electronics a somewhat distant second.

This brings me to a fantastic customer story by Konica Minolta, which has been growing about 4.5% since 2010 with net profit margin averaging nearly 25%. Clearly this is a very nice performance given the recent drop in global presence of the Japanese consumer electronics industry. While their inventories have been quite flat for the past 3 years, they have been able to reduce inventories by over 35% since 2000, while growing largely outside of Japan. This is not an easy feat.

But it is their future ambitions that really caught my attention. They have been using Kinaxis for Sales and Operations Planning (or SIOP as it is called in Japan). Their plan is to expand into essentially Integrated Business Planning (IBP), in which they will be generating a rolling budgeting forecast. Of course there is a lot more that goes into budgeting, but there are few companies I know that are driving a bottoms-up revenue forecast from Operations. Usually the revenue number is a top-down mandate from the executives. I am under no illusion that Konica Minolta’s executive will still provide a top-down target for revenue and other financial and operational metrics, but what is interesting to me is that they will have bottoms-up numbers which they can use to compare and rationalize the top-down targets.

Of course Konica Minolta will also generate the tactical plan with Kinaxis too. As they stated in their presentation, a volume or aggregate only S&OP plan is not sufficient. While the volume plan may capture the revenue with sufficient accuracy, it is only at the mix or detailed level where the problems can be identified and the true costs calculated. Without the ability to navigate seamlessly between a volume and mix plan, all you are left with in the S&OP cycle is essentially a consolidated forecast.

Even in their current S&OP deployment they gave a great example of needing to model everything at the daily level in order to get accurate time bucket consolidation across countries/regions (which use different calendars) and functions (which require different levels of aggregation). They had been planning in weekly buckets and struggling to get accurate conversions from weeks into months, quarters, and years. And vice versa, when they wanted to make changes at a more aggregate level. By deploying Kinaxis they increased the data size 7 fold (weeks to days) and saw calculation times go from many hours in their previous solution to minutes with Kinaxis, all while being able to support seamless transitions between volume and mix planning.

The Konica Minolta team asked me to talk to them about best practice S&OP in the US. I didn’t have much to tell them. Instead I asked them if I could talk about what they are doing to customers and prospects in the US. It really is a great story.

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Posted in Miscellanea, Sales and operations planning (S&OP), Supply chain management

On the road! Upcoming events for Kinaxis

Published November 26th, 2013 by Melissa Clow 0 Comments

It’s a busy time of year for us at Kinaxis – as I am sure many of our readers can identify with. Many folks here are flying the skies to attend various conferences and wrapping up end of year projects. Here’s where we are at in the coming weeks.

Kinexions Tokyo 2013
November 28, 2013
Canadian Embassy
Tokyo 107-8503, Japan

The presentations at the conference will include case studies from major domestic manufacturers and speak to the RapidResponse technology capabilities for knowing sooner and acting faster, which include multi-tier supply chain visibility, what-if analysis and collaboration. The agenda includes the following presentations:

  • Konica Minolta’s initiative for next generation SCM: Shifting from demand and supply chain management (SCM) to business alignment, Noboru Ohta, group leader, SCM planning group, Konica Minolta, Inc.
  • Supply chain resilience – Enabling supply chain management to be adaptive and resilient to market change, Toru Kanazawa, operation officer, Deloitte Tohmatsu Consulting Co.
  • RapidResponse Roadmap: Trailblazing! Andrew Bell, product manager, Kinaxis
  • Continuous S&OP, Trevor Miles, vice president, thought leadership, Kinaxis

Learn more about Kinexions Tokyo.


Supply Chain and Logistics Summit North America
December 2 – 4, 2013
Hyatt Regency in Dallas, Texas

At the conference, join C.J. Wehlage, vice-president, high tech solutions at Kinaxis as he presents “Speed as the Innovator in the Supply Chain” on Tuesday December 3, 2013 from 4:20p.m. – 4:55p.m.  During the presentation, C.J.  will discuss the following themes:

  • Understanding how the new dynamic of direct customer communication with suppliers is changing the time frames for business processes
  • Transforming metrics gathered in real-time into informed decision-making at the right time
  • Empowering supply chain executives to drive positive outcomes through improved visibility and communication
  • Offering examples from the practitioner’s perspective of accelerating delivery on the fundamentals


Is Technology as a Priority Means for Achieving Supply Chain Performance Getting Short Changed?

Friday, December 6, 2013
12:00 p.m. – 1:00 p.m. EST

This free session based on recent Supply Chain Insights Research that discusses the increasingly acute issue of establishing consensus and unity between Supply Chain and IT priorities.

Reserve your spot for this complimentary webcast.


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Posted in Miscellanea

Delivering on the S&OP promise for the 21st Century – Effective, efficient, integrated

Published June 21st, 2013 by Melissa Clow 0 Comments

S&OP Presentation at Supply Chain Logistics EuropeNext week, we’re platinum sponsors of the European Supply Chain Summit and will host a workshop entitled, Delivering on the S&OP promise for the 21st Century – Effective, efficient, integrated.

This year’s theme is supporting growth through responsive and flexible strategies and will take place June 25– 27, 2013 at The Maritim Hotel in Berlin, Germany.

S&OP Workshop Details

Delivering on the S&OP promise for the 21st Century – Effective, efficient, integrated
Thursday June 27th at 11:55 AM – 12:35 PM, stream two

Join C.J. Wehlage, vice president, high-tech solutions at Kinaxis as he discusses how companies are moving to a weekly S&OP cadence with daily reviews, and are including finance, marketing, and R&D, not just sales and operations. Learn how S&OP becomes more effective, efficient, and integrated by doing concurrent planning across functions, at both volume and mix levels, considering both longer and shorter term issues.

Visit Kinaxis at the conference at booth # 56 and follow the hashtag #SCLEurope and @Kinaxis on twitter for event updates.

Charles (CJ) Wehlage, vice president of high tech solutions
CJ joined Kinaxis in 2013 with the responsibility to guide the company’s industry strategy within the high tech vertical. With extensive experience, both as a supply chain practitioner and an industry research analyst, CJ serves as a strategic advisor to the company, while also supporting global field teams and working with prospects and customers as they define and pursue supply chain excellence strategies.

CJ has over twenty years of industry experience as a supply chain professional and researcher. Before joining Kinaxis he was vice president of high tech sales at Jonova, and previously, vice president of supply chain at Sony. He was also director of research at AMR Research for high tech value chains. In addition, CJ has held leadership roles at EMC, where he was responsible for third party enablement, outsourcing, and lean design; Apple, where he worked extensively in Asia and Silicon Valley; and, Bose where he led large scale Oracle and SAP ERP projects.

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Posted in Demand management, Response Management, Sales and operations planning (S&OP), Supply chain collaboration, Supply chain management